Unit 3: Solutions

Course Goals:

  • To develop your understanding of the nature of science as it pertains to the  physical world.
  • To understand and describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, the chemical nature of matter and apply your understanding to natural phenomena you observe in everyday life
  • To better use technology in your learning, becoming a better digital citizen

Course Essential Questions

  • How can I use my experience in chemistry to learn to think and communicate clearly, logically, and critically in preparation for college and a career?
  • How can I best assess my own learning and progress?
  • How might scientific inquiry be used to investigate the natural world?
  • How can we learn about things that are to small to see?1

Unit Essential Questions

  • What chemical and physical properties can be identified in food?
  • How are the basic concepts, skills, and understandings in chemistry related to one another? Interrelated?
  • How are the properties of compounds, elements, solutions, mixtures important to our work with these substances?
  • What are the chemical reactions that can be identified in the candymaking process? In other foodstuffs, ingredients, processes?
  • How can the properties be described and measured?
  • In what ways can data be used to visualize, display, and share new information?

Essential Understandings

  1. the interactions of particles during the dissolving process
  2. precision and accuracy in measurement
  3. calculations are the justification for your results
  4. chemical and physical properties are described using recorded measurements and observations
  5. differences between chemical reactions and physical processes at the particle level and in the laboratory
  6. mathematical processes are used to analyze measurements and observations for the purpose of discovering and communicating connections and trends

Prior Knowledge

  • lab safety protocols
  • names and symbols of 44 common elements
  • differences and similarities between compounds and elements; between pure substances and mixtures
  • bond types
  • characteristics of physical and chemical processes
  • the general process of dissolving
  • names of groups (families) on the periodic table (complete the handout Structure of the Periodic Table.)
  • How ions form

Prior Skills: Be able to....

  • work safely in the laboratory, wearing appropriate PPE
  • use MSDS as primary source documents
  • measure and record mass, volume, length with precision
  • use conversion factors as needed to insure units agree
  • use data and calculations as evidence to support and argue
  • use the periodic table to:
    • find atomic number, atomic mass, numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons for any element
    • identify numbers of valence electrons and ionic charges on monatomic ions
Learning Targets:
  • Describe the solution process, in words and using a particle model, in terms of the interactions of particles during the dissolving process
  • List the factors that affect solubility and explain the inoact of each one.
  • Describe an unsaturated solution, a saturated solution, a supersaturated solution at the particle level
  • Determine the solubility of a substance as a result of temperature change
  • Calculate the concentration of a solution in percent by mass and percent by volume
  • Calculate the mass/volume of solute and water needed to prepare a solution of a given concentration
  • Prepare a solution of a given concentration

In this project-based unit, you will investigate the processes of dissolving and crystallizing at the particle level by making hardtack candy. You will then use your learning to produce hardtack candy.

Candy Hints:

  • Choose a recipe that uses about 3-4 cups of sugar. You can double a recipe if you need to.
  • Come into class and get started quickly. It takes time for your solution to reach a boil.
Terms: Bricks

Daily Learning Activities - see website for updated information

Day 28
Dec 6-7

  • Ion Quiz
  • Review Electron Configuration
  • Classification of Matter
Day 29
Dec 8-9
  • Ion Quiz
  • Electron Configuration Quiz
  • The Solution Process
  • Saturated and unsaturated solutions
  • Solubility, and how to figure it out
  • Assignment: Begin to look for recipes for hardtack candy.
Day 30
Dec 12-13
  • Crystal structure and crystallization
Day 31
Dec 14

  • Types of Bonds? (A day; B day will do this on the firt day back)
Day 32
Dec 15-16
Crystallization of a Sucrose Solution Lab

Links and Resources

Common Core Standards Addressed:

RI.9-10.8.: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

W.9-10.1.: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • * Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • * Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  • * Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • * Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  • * Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

W.9-10.10.: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

W.9-10.3.: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • * Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view, and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • * Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • * Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
  • * Use precise words and phrases, telling details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  • * Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

L.9-10.2.: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • * Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
  • * Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  • * Spell correctly.

W.9-10.2.: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • * Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • * Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • * Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • * Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • * Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  • * Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

W.9-10.5.: Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.

W.9-10.8.: Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

W.9-10.6.: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

W.9-10.7.: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
RI.9-10.4.: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).
L.9-10.6.: Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

© L. C. Lee 1990-2017
Creative Commons License
This work by Luann Christensen Lee is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at www.chemistar.com.

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