Chemistry Unit 2: Atoms and the Periodic Table, Part 1
- Describe the experimental evidence for historical models of the atom.
- Explain the role of experimental evidence in our understandings of the natural world.
- Explain how experimental evidence shaped the development of the currently accepted model of the atom.
- Use Avodagro’s number and what we know about the mass of atoms and different elements to do useful calculations about chemicals.
Course Essential Questions
- How can we study things that are to small to see?1
- How might scientific inquiry be used to investigation the natural world?
- How can I use my experience in chemistry to learn to think and communicate clearly, logically, and critically in preparation for college and a career?
- How can I best assess my own learning and progress?
- Experimental evidence leads to the development of models and/or theories as possible explanations.
- Scientific models are refined as questions about the model lead to further investigation.
- Atomic structure is responsible for the physical and chemical properties of elements.
- Atoms are counted by weighing them.
- Atoms of the same element may have different numbers of neutrons (isotopes) and electrons (ions) but not protons.
- The Quantum Mechanical Model is the currently accepted explanation of atomic structure based on many different kinds of empirical evidence.
- Atomic structure is responsible for the physical and chemical properties of elements, as in the formation of ions, and both inter- and intramolecular forces.
- Unit Conversions and Dimensional Analysis (we will review)
- Names and symbols of 50 common elements
- Make and use conversion factors in dimensional analysis
- Assign appropriate variables to quantities in a lab calculation or story problem.
- Use scientific notation in mathematical calculations
- Solve a 3-variable equation for any one variable
- atomic number
- atomic mass
- average relative atomic mass
- mass number
- molar mass
- valence electron
- core electron
Students will know....
- How to count particles (atoms and molecules and formula units) by weighing them.
- The three basic laws that describe how matter behaves in chemical reactions.
- The statements in Dalton's Atomic Theory that explain the 3 laws (above)
- Explain the significance of the findings in these experiments:
- Cathode Ray tube
- Oil Droplet
- Gold Foil
- Relative sizes and charges of subatomic particles
- Ions form when electrons are lost or gained.
- The periodic table described the arrangement of electrons in atoms long before scientists knew about atomic tructure, and still does today.
- Names and formulas of assigned monatomic and polyatomic ions.
- Relationships among isotopes of the same element
- THe difference between ions and isotopes
- Avogadro's number, and how and when to use it
Students will be able to....
- Define theory. Explain why the Atomic Theory is a theory.
- Explain the laws of conservation of mass, definite proportions, and multiple proportions.
- Summarize the 5 essential points of Dalton's atomic theory.
- Explain the relationship between Dalton's atomic theory and the laws of conservation of mass, definite proportions, and multiple proportions.
- Interpret the experiments of Thomson, Millikan, and Rutherford and explain how their results impacted the formation of an early atomic model.
- Formulate 2 investigative questions about atomic structure that are not explained by the Plum Pudding Model.
- Describe Rutherford' work and explain how he used the results to formulate the Solar System Model.
- Explain what every atom of a given element has in common.
- Use the periodic table to find charges on ions
- Explain how isotopes of an element are similar and how they differ.
- Define model. Explain how scientists use models.
- Formulate 2 investigative questions about atomic structure that are not explained by Thomson's Plum Pudding Model or Rutherford's Solar System Model.
- State common misconceptions people may have about the structure of atoms. Formulate an explanation of the quantum model.
- Calculate the relative atomic mass of an element, given percents and mass numbers of a set of its isotopes.
- Count the number and types of atoms in a chemical formula
- Find the molar mass of an element on the periodic table, or calculate the molar mass of a compound.
- Create conversion factors from molar masses and use them to convert between grams and moles.
- Inside the Atom, Model 1
- Structure of the Periodic Table
Links - Atomic Structure
Links - calculations