Biology Unit 4: DNA and Protein Synthesis

Goals:

  • Describe the experimental evidence used to construct our knowledge of a DNA model.

  • Describe the structure of DNA with respect to its function.

  • Describe the structure of DNA and its relationship to chromosomes.

  • Explain the role of DNA in protein synthesis.

Course Essential Questions

  • How are a system's characteristics, form, and function attributed to the quantity, type, and nature of its components?
  • How might scientific inquiry be used to investigation the natural world?

Unit Essential Questions

  • What is the chemical structure of DNA?
  • What experimental evidence led to the formation of the model of DNA? (How do we know?)
  • What changes were made to each model as questions were asked?
  • How are the characteristics of DNA attributed to its structure?
  • What is the relationship of the chemical structure of DNA to a chromosome?
  • What is the role of DNA in protein synthesis?
  • What is the function of proteins in living things?
  • Why is this learning important?

Understandings

  1. The structure of DNA is a double helix made of 4 bases, which pair as (cytosine -guanine; alanine - thymine) supported by a sugar-phosphate backbone.
  2. DNA coils tightly to form chromosomes.
  3. Protein is produced from RNA which carries the instructions for making protein from the code in a cell's DNA.
  4. The differences between DNA and RNA are:
    • double stranded / single stranded
    • thymine/uracil
    • deoxyribose/ribose
    • one type/3 types
  5. Protein synthesis
    • DNA holds the instructions/blueprints or making proteins
    • mRNA leaves the nucleus
    • rRNA reads mRNA and directs
    • tRNA as it brings amino acids that connect to one another to make protein

Students will know....

  • Terms:
    • amino acid
    • adenine
    • cytosine
    • guanine
    • thymine
    • complementary base pair
    • sugar-phosphate backbone
    • double helix
  • Molecular structure of DNA, including components
  • How the structure of DNA is related to the structure of chromosomes

Students will be able to.... AKA I can.....

  • Explain how we know that DNA is the hereditary material, citing experimental evidence.
  • describe the chemical structure of DNA, and explain how we know the structure.
  • describe the process of DNA replication, explaining why the process is termed semiconservative.
  • explain how the coiling of DNA into chromosomes takes place and why this is important.
  • Describe the cell cycle and the role of mitosis in the cell cycle.
  • explain the transcription of RNA from DNA.
  • explain 4 differences between DNA and RNA, and why each is significant.
  • describe three types of RNA and explain the role of each in protein synthesis.
  • explain how mRNA is translated into protein.
  • trace the synthesis of protein from the transcription of DNA into RNA through the production of a finished protein.

 

Unit Resources

Outside Links and Resources


Daily Learning Activities
Day 26 Experiments of Griffith, Hershey and Chase ppt
Day 27 Extraction of DNA from cheek cells. How do we know what DNA is, and what it looks like?
Day 28

DNA replication

Day 29 Cell Cycle - mitosis
Day 30  
Day 31  
Day 32 Modeling DNA Repliction;(ppt); Transcription of RNA
Day 33 Translation: Modeling Protein Synthesis
Day 34 Proficiency

Oregon State Standards:
H.1L.2 Describe the chemical structure of DNA and its relationship to chromosomes. Explain the role of DNA in protein synthesis.
H.3S.3 Analyze data and identify uncertainties. Draw a valid conclusion, explain how it is supported by the evidence, and communicate the findings of a scientific investigation.
H.3S.3 Analyze data and identify uncertainties. Draw a valid conclusion, explain how it is supported by the evidence, and communicate the findings of a scientific investigation.
H.4D.5 Describe how new technologies enable new lines of scientific inquiry and are largely responsible for changes in how people live and work.