Anatomy and Physiology Unit 2: Cells and Chemistry

Course Goals:

  • To develop your understanding of the nature of science as it pertains to the human body and our environment.

Course Essential Questions

  • How do the structures of the body govern their functions?
    How do body structures work with one another to sustain life?

Unit Essential Questions

  1. How is a human body built from atoms? (Part 1: Building the Building Blocks of Life.)


  1. A complex set of chemical reactions provide the substances and energy needed to sustain life:
  2. Cells have many of the same organelles
  3. The same organelle in one cell can produce different products than the same organelle in a different type of cell
  4. The same 4 types of organic molecules (macromolecules) make up all living things.
  5. Chemical reactions in cells take place based on the cell’s environment and substances present
  6. Cells get old and die. Cells reproduce, generating new cells.
Learning Targets: Essential Question

Students will know....

  1. Basic principals of chemistry that are foundational to biology, anatomy, and physiology.
  2. The elements most plentiful in the human body, and the chemical properties of the elements.
  3. The structure of the 4 organic molecules that make up living things.
  4. Cell structures and their functions
  5. Mechanisms to transport substances into or out of the cell (types of active and passive transport)
  6. The cell cycle and its products
Learning Targets: Skills

Students will be able to.....

  1. Identify and describe and apply basic principles of chemistry as they relate to human anatomy and physiology.
  2. List the elements most plentiful in the human body (C, H, O, N, P, Na, Ca, Mg, K, Cl, S). Describe their properties and bonding. (review of basic chemistry)
  3. List and describe the structure of 4 organic molecules that make up living things. (review of biology)
  4. Identify, describe, and explain cell structures and their functions.
  5. Describe and explain how different substances move into or out of a cell.
  6. Describe the replication process and products in a body cell (cell cycle)

Transfer Goal
Describe how the structure of a cell, organelle, or molecule dictates its function. Explain the relationship between macromolecules and the structures that produce them.

Academic Vocabulary: Bricks Academic Vocabulary: Mortar


  • Electrolytes
  • Inorganic compound
  • Organic compound
  • Macromolecule
  • Monosacchiride
  • Disaccharide
  • Polysaccharide
  • Fatty acid
  • Glycerol
  • Steroid
  • Apoptosis
  • Anabolism
  • Catabolism
  • Glycolysis
  • Citric acid cycle
  • Concentration gradient
  • Cell (plasma) membrane
  • Phospholipid bilayer
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Ribosomes
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosomes
  • Peroxisomes
  • Microfilaments
  • Microtubules
  • Centrosome
  • Cilia
  • Flagella
  • Vesicles
  • Nuclear envelope
  • Nucleus
  • Nucleolus
  • Chromatin


  • Dehydration synthesis
  • Coenzyme
  • Osmotic pressure


  • Ionic bonds
  • Covalent bonds
  • Polar molecules
  • Hydrogen bonds
  • Molecular formula
  • Structural formula
  • Synthesis reaction
  • Decomposition reaction
  • Replacement reaction
  • Acid
  • Base
  • pH
  • Carbohydrate
  • Lipid
  • Protein, Amino acid
  • Phospholipid
  • Nucleic acid
  • Nucleotide
  • DNA, RNA
  • Passive transport
  • Diffusion
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Hypotonic/Hypertonic
  • Isotonic
  • Active transport
  • Endocytosis
  • Phagocytosis
  • Pinocytosis
  • Interphase
  • Mitosis
  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase
  • Cytokinesis
  • ATP
  • DNA replication
  • describe
  • calculate
  • analyze
  • classify
  • interpret
  • list; state
  • explain
  • define
  • law (in science)
  • Buffer
  • Conformation
  • Pump
  • Metabolism
  • Differentiation
  • Enzyme
  • Catalyst
  • Substrate
  • Energy
  • Oxidation
  • Aerobic
  • Anaerobic
  • Concentration
  • Gradient Equilibrium




Daily Learning Activities

Day 8
August 28

  • Review of cell parts and functions: membrane structure and transport
Day 9
August 29
  • Macromolecules - review
    • Structure, composition, functions
  • Elements in human body - due Monday, Sept 5
Day 10
August 30
Fog Day
Day 11
August 31
Cell Size Lab - Due Friday Sept 1
Day 12
Sept 1
Day 13
Sept 5
  • Water and Electrolytes, and why they are ions
  • Whiteboard dissociation and solution
Day 14
Sept 6
  • Water and ion quiz
  • Concept map of cell structures, molecules, and functions - due Sept 15
Day 15
Sept 7
Day 16
Sept 8

13 Science Inquiry and Application

Common Core State Standards:

RI.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

RI.9-10.6 Determine an author's point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.