AP Chemistry Unit 1 Measurement, Matter, Review

Unit Goals:

  • Review first year Chemistry and prepare for Advanced Placement Chemistry.
  • Identify areas you need to strengthen.
  • Discover relationships between basic concepts and use those relationships to strengthen and deepen your understandings.
  • To develop your understanding of the nature of science as it pertains to the  physical world.
  • To understand and describe, qualitatively and quantitatively, the chemical nature of matter and apply your understanding to natural phenomena you observe

Unit Essential Questions

  • What is your current definition of chemistry?
  • What do you need to review, learn or re-learn?
  • How do you best learn? How can you find new ways to learn?
  • How are the basic concepts, skills, and understandings (from first year chemistry) interrelated?
  • How will you use these concepts, skills, and understandings to deepen your understanding of chemistry?

Unit Essential Understandings

  1. Characteristics and differences between physical and chemical change
  2. Why significant figures are significant in measurement.
  3. The concept of derived units and use relationships relating to density and energy.
  4. The differences between, and be able to apply, the concepts of accuracy and precision
  5. Why the periodic table is organized as it is, and how it can be helpful.
  6. How the Law of Conservation of Mass is illustrated in equations for chemical reactions

Learning Targets, Chapters 1, 2, and 3. They may or may not be new.

These concepts and skills are probably review from your first year chemistry course. Don't panic if you aren't remembering everything. The point here is for you to ask the questions and do the practice you need to do to strengthen your understanding. We will work with each of these ideas continually this year, so you'll have plenty of opportunity to make each concept your own. Relationships between concepts are key to application of the right idea or calcuation at the right time.

Chapter 1, Section 2-3 (Chapter 1.2 and 1.3) Terms and their uses in chemistry.

  • Use terms in accordance with their meanings in science rather than their meanings in general conversation.
  • Ask a question that can be answered with empirical data, design an experimental procedure, record and analyze relevant data, and communicate their findings with an appropriately formatted lab report.

Chapter 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 Classification and Properties of Matter

  • Diagram and write an explanation for the relationships among compound, element, mixture, pure substance, hoogeneous mixture, heterogeneous mixture, solution.
  • Describe the differences in solids, liquids, and gases from a particle's point of view.
  • Draw a particle model to represent each.
  • Compare and contrast physical and chemical properties, physical and chemical changes, and intensive vs. extensive properties.
  • the difference between elements, mixtures and compounds including the difference between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures
  • the three states of matter, their general properties and their processes of interconversion (ex. melting)

Chapter 1.7 -1.8 Measurement

  • Science Practice 2 The Student can use mathematics appropriately.
  • fundamental SI units used in chemistry and how to use them.
  • derived units used in chemistry and how to use them.
  • the prefixes and values for nano-, milli- , centi- ,deci-, and kilo- to use with grams, liters, meters
  • use scientific notation (standard form)
  • Explain the meaning of uncertainty and understand and be able to use the rules for determining significant figures, using them in calculations, and rounding.
  • Problems 1.48

Chapter 1.9 -1.10 Dimensional Analysis and Problem-solving (Science Practice 2 The Student can use mathematics appropriately.)

  • clearly communicate the solution to a problem showing a logical set of steps used to solve the problem.
  • use dimensional analysis to convert between units in problem-solving
  • Use the density formula to find mass or volume of a known or unknown substance.
  • Problems 1.51-1.95

Chapter 2.1-2.2 Atomic Theory and Atomic Structure

  • 1.5 The student is able to:
  1. Describe Dalton's Atomic Theory and its significance to our work today
  2. Describe the scientific evidence from experiments done by Thomson, Millikan, Rutherford, and Chadwick supporting the historical evolution of the Bohr model of the atom

Chapter 2.3 and 2.4 Atoms and Ions and the Periodic Table

  • Find number of protons, neutrons, and electrons using data on the periodic table. Explain the meaning of the data, using correct terminology.
  • Describe the basic organization of the periodic table.

Chapter 2.5 and 2.6 Atoms and Ions and the Periodic Table

Chapter 2.7 and 2.8 Naming Ionic, Molecular, and Organic Compounds

Chapter 3.1 - 3.4 Avogadro's number and The mole; molar and molecular mass, and spectrometry

  • Problems 3.11, 3.13, 3.15, 3.16, 3.20, 3.29, 3.30, 3.33, 3.34

Chapters 3.5-3.6 Percent Composition, Empirical Formulas, Molecular Formulas

  • LO 1.2 The student is able to select and apply mathematical routines to mass data to identify or infer the composition of pure substances and/or mixtures.
  • LO 1.3 THe student is able to select and apply mathematical relationships to mass data in order to justify a claim regarding the identity and/or purity of a substance.
  • Problems 3.40, 3.41, 3.42, 3.44

Chapters 3.7-3.10 Chemical Reactions, Equations, Stoichiometry, and Limiting Reactants

  • Problems 3.46, 3.47, 3.59, 3.60, 3.63, 3.64, 3.65, 3.66, 3.69, 3.70, 3.71, 3.76, 3.78, 3.81, 3.82, 3.83, 3.84, 3,86, 3.89, 3.93, 3.94, 3.96, 3.97, 3.98, 3.101, 3.108, 3.11, 3.12, 3.116, 3.118, 3.122, 3.139, 3,142, 3.167

Students will know and be able to

  • how to calculate percent error and know when to use it.
  • organization of the periodic table, using the Periodic Law.
  • symbols for 40 common elements.
  • how ions form.
  • seven elements found in nature as diatomic molecules
  • from memory, the given list of polyatomic ions.
  • naming protocols for ionic and molecular compounds, including acids, and simple organic compounds
  • characteristics of 2 types of chemical bonds, and why they form.
  • how the limiting reactant controls the amount of product that forms in a chemical reaction.
    • explain and practice appropriate lab safety protocols and SDS use
    • convert between grams and moles, using molar mass as a conversion factor.
    • locate on the periodic table, describe, list characteristics of, and compare elements in the following groups:
      • Alkali metals
      • Alkaline Earth metals
      • Transition Metals
      • Metalloids
      • Halogens
      • Transition metals
      • Metals
      • Nonmetals
      • Lanthanides
      • Actinides
      • s, p, d, f blocks
    • use information on the periodic table to find the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of any given element.
    • find the charge of monatomic ions using the periodic table.
    • name simple compounds, given the formula, and write formulas for simple compounds.
    • calculate percent composition, find empirical formula, and molecular formula.
    • write word equations and balanced formula equations to describe chemical reactions, based on the Law of Conservation of Mass.
    • perform mass-mass stoichiometric calculations.
    • calculate percentage yield
    • verify via stoichiomentic calculations, the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction.

Daily Learning Activities

Day 1

  • Notebooks and notemaking
  • Expectations, AP and dual credit
  • Review of "summer homework" quick check in group; edit to reflect problem-solving thinking
  • Term search and highlight - highlight each in different color on homework handouts as you complete assignment #1
  • Assignment: Problems AND Chapter 1 interactive reading - working on your own as this is still mostly review.
Day 2
  • Problem Review
  • Introduction to Determining the Dimensions of an Oleic Acid Molecule
    • In groups, brainstorm the process you will need to use, one idea per post-it note. Include all measurements needed and how you will make them, and all calculations.

Day 3

  • LAB - Determining the Size of an Oleic Acid Molecule
    • Plan out your process on a whiteboard. Include a data table, and a calculations table draft.
    • Make the measurements as a group, and do the calculations individually.
    • Submit individual reports including problem statement, summary of your process, data tables, calculation table, and calculations with descriptions and all steps shown.
  • Chapter 1 Interactive Reading is due

Day 4

  • Oleic Acid report due
  • Quiz Chapter 1 - density problem solving
  • Composition and Reaction Stoichiometry Review
  • Problems assigned for all of Chapter 3. Start for next class; quiz on applications of measurement and dimensional analysis

Day 5

  • Composition and Reaction Stoichiometry Review
  • All Ch 3 problems due next week
Day 6
  • Composition and Reaction Stoichiometry Review
  • Review Ch 3 problems
  • Chemical Reactions Review
    • New ways to classify reactions
    • oxidation numbers and redox reactions
Day 7
  • Day 1, Copper Cycle Lab
Day 8
  • Day 2, Copper Cycle Lab
Day 9
Day 10

Day 11

  • Chemical Reactions - a new look
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