Unit 16:


  • To understand the nature of equilibrium and the difference between chemical and physical equilibrium.
  • To define the equilibrium comstant in terms of the law of mass action.
  • To write equilibrium constant expressions for both homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria (different phases) and how to express equilibrium constants for multiple equilibria.
  • To explain the relationships between the rate constant and the equilibrium constant for a reaction. Why is the equilibrium constant a constant, and why does it vary with temperature?
  • To explain how knowing the equilibrium constant enables us to predict the direction of a net reaction towards equilibrium and to calculate equilibrium concentrations.
  • To explain the 4 factors that may affect the position of equilibrium: concentration, volume/pressure, temperature, catalyst.
  • To use LeChatelier's principle to predict the changes.

Course Goals and Essential Questions

  • How can we learn about things that are to small to see?
  • What relationships can I construct among basic concepts, skills, and understandings?
  • How can I best assess my own learning and progress?
  • How can I better use technology in my learning?
  • How can I become a better digital citizen?
  • How can I think more divergently, create, innovate?
  • How can I use my experience in chemistry to learn to think and communicate clearly, logically, and critically in preparation for college and a career?

Prior Knowledge and skills

  • Writing and balancing equations
  • Using reaction stoichiometry
  • Using molarity in calculations
  • Calculation of reaction rates and rate constants
Learning Targets Ch. 15.1 Bronsted Acids and Bases Q&P 15.1-15.11 15.7,

Students will know and be able to.....

  1. Compare and contrast Arrhenius, Brønsted, and Lewis acids and bases.
  2. Describe what is meant by conjugate acid-base pairs and give several examples.
Learning Targets Ch. 15.2 Acid-Base Properties of Water Q&P 15.9, 15.10, 15.11

Students will know and be able to.....

  1. Use Kw to determine [H+] and [OH] of solutions.
Learning Targets Ch. 15.3 pH - A Measure of Acidity Q&P 15.12-15.26

Students will know and be able to...

  1.  Define the pH scale and calculate pH and pOH given either [H+] or [OH].
Learning Targets Ch. 15.4 Strength of Acids and Bases Q&P 15.27, 15.28-15.30, 15.31-15.32. 15.33-15.38

Students will know and be able to....

  1. Define strong and weak acids and bases; give several examples of each.
  2.  List properties of conjugate acid-base pairs.
Learning Targets Ch. 15.5 Weak Acids and Acid Ionization Constants Q&P 15.39, 15.40-15.42, 15.43-15.46, 15.47-15.49, 15.50

Students will know and be able to....

  1. Determine Ka from experimental data.
  2. Calculate pH, [H+], weak acid concentration, and conjugate base concentration given Ka and the initial concentration of the weak acid using the quadratic equation or the method of successive approximation as needed.
  3. Calculate percent ionization for a weak acid.
Learning Targets Ch. 15.6 Weak Bases and Base Ionization Constants Q&P 15.51, 15.52-15.54, 15.55, 15.56-15.57, 15.58
  1. Calculate pH, [OH], weak base concentration, and conjugate acid concentration given Kb and the initial concentration of the weak base, using the quadratic equation or the method of successive approximation as needed.
Learning Targets Ch. 15.7 Relationship Between Ionization Constants of Acids and Conjugate Bases Q&P 15.59-15.60
11. Illustrate the relationship between Ka, Kb, and Kw.
Learning Targets Ch. 15.8 Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids Q&P 15.61
  1. Calculate concentrations of all species present at equilibrium for diprotic and polyprotic acids.
Learning Targets Ch. 15.9 Molecular Structure and the Strength of Acids Q&P 15.67, 15.69
13. Relate how molecular structure determines the strength of acids.
14. Compare the relative strengths of two groups of oxoacids.
Learning Targets Ch. 15.10 Acid-Base Properties of Salts Q&P 15.73, 15.76, 15.77, 15.78, 15.79, 15.80-15.81
15. Describe salt hydrolysis and explain how some salts produce neutral solutions, some acidic solutions, and others basic solutions.
16. Calculate the pH of salt solutions and determine the percent hydrolysis.
Learning Targets Ch. 15.11 Acid-Base Properties and Hydroxides Q&P 15.85, 15.86, 15.87-15.90
17. Describe acid-base properties of oxides and hydroxides.
18. Give several examples of Lewis acid-base reactions.

Links and Resources

L. C. Lee 1990-2013
Creative Commons License
This work by Luann Christensen Lee is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at www.chemistar.com.

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