Unit 12: Solutions

Goals:

Course Goals and Essential Questions

  • How can we learn about things that are to small to see?
  • What relationships can I construct among basic concepts, skills, and understandings?
  • How can I best assess my own learning and progress?
  • How can I better use technology in my learning?
  • How can I become a better digital citizen?
  • How can I think more divergently, create, innovate?
  • How can I use my experience in chemistry to learn to think and communicate clearly, logically, and critically in preparation for college and a career?

Prior Knowledge and Skills

  • Describe a solution in terms of solute and solvent
Learning Targets Ch. 12.1 Types of Solutions

Students will know and be able to do.......

  1. Use the terms saturated, unsaturated and supersaturated to describe solutions.
  2. Distinguish between crystallization and precipitation.
Learning Targets Ch. 12.2 Molecular View of the Solution Process

Students will know and be able to....

  1. Predict the relative solubilities given the next dipole moment of solute and solvent.
Learning Targets Ch. 12.3 Concentration Units

Students will know and be able to....

  1. Define, determine and inter-convert between each of the following:
    • molarity
    • percent by mass
    • mole fraction
    • molality
  2. Suggest a shortcoming of molarity and explain why molality is a preferred concentration unit under certain conditions.
Learning Targets Ch. 12.4 The Effect of Temperature on Solubility

Students will know and be able to....

  1. Use the concept of fractional crystallization to show how dissolved solids can be separated.
  2. Describe how thermal pollution may affect the oxygen content in lakes or streams.
  3. State Henry’s law and use it to determine the solubility of gases in liquids.
Learning Targets Ch. 12.5 The Effect of Pressure on the Solubility of Gases

Students will know and be able to....

  1. State Henry’s law and use it to determine the solubility of gases in liquids.
  2. Rationalize why two common materials (NH3 or CO2) when dissolved in water do not follow Henry’s law.
Learning Targets Ch.12.6 Colligative Properties of Nonelectrolyte Solutions

Students will know and be able to....

  1. Define colligative properties and give four examples (vapor-pressure lowering, freezing-point depression, boiling-point elevation, and osmotic pressure).
  2. Use Raoult’s law to find vapor pressures or concentrations of solutions.
  3. Describe the apparatus used in fractional distillation.
  4. Predict the plot of pressure versus mole fraction for an ideal solution.
  5. Rationalize the possibility of either positive or negative deviations from Raoult’s law by non-ideal solutions.
  6. Perform calculations involving boiling-point elevation, freezing-point depression, Kf, Kb and molality.
  7. Use the concepts of osmotic pressure to describe the processes of osmosis and reverse osmosis.
  8. Describe the following terms:
    • semi-permeable membrane
    • isotonic
    • hypertonic
    • hypotonic
    • crenation
  9. Use the concepts of colligative properties to determine molar mass.
Learning Targets Ch. 12.7 Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions

Students will know and be able to....

  1. Define the van’t Hoff factor and demonstrate how it is incorporated into the colligative property equations.
  2. Give examples of common types of colloids and describe the dispersing medium and dispersed phase for each.
  3. Describe the Tyndall effect.
  4. Identify hydrophilic and hydrophobic colloids and describe the cleansing action of soap.
Daily Learning Activities
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Links and Resources

Textbook, Chapter 16 - all sections. Only basic concepts from Ch 6.3


 

L. C. Lee 1990-2012
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This work by Luann Christensen Lee is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at www.chemistar.com.

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