AP Chemistry Unit 10: Intermolecular Forces in Liquids and Solids
Investigation (Google doc) - copy and paste into your own doc.
This set of notes from a professor at UCLA will likely be helpful.

Goals:

  • To understand the reasons for the attraction that exists between molecules of liquids and solids (intermoleclar forces).
  • To understand the character and types of different intermolecular forces
  • To be able to explain the properties of liquids and solids in terms of intermolecular forces.
    • water vapor pressure and phase changes in terms of energy and intermolecular forces

Course Goals and Essential Questions

  • How can we learn about things that are to small to see?
  • What relationships can I construct among basic concepts, skills, and understandings?
  • How can I best assess my own learning and progress?
  • How can I better use technology in my learning?
  • How can I become a better digital citizen?
  • How can I think more divergently, create, innovate?
  • How can I use my experience in chemistry to learn to think and communicate clearly, logically, and critically in preparation for college and a career?

Prior Knowledge

  • Ionic and covalent bonds
  • Kinetic theory as it applies to gases
  • Polarity
  • Basic physical properties of solids, liquids, gases

Prior Skills

  • Describe the formation of ionic and covalent bonds
Learning Targets Ch. 11.1 The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids and Solids

Students will know....

  • the properties of gases, liquids and solids in terms of density, compressibility and motion of particles.

Students will be able to....

  • Describe solids, liquids, gases in terms of density, compressibility, motion of particles
Learning Targets Ch. 11.2 Intermolecular Forces

Students will know....

  • the difference between intermolecular and intramolecular forces.
  • Identify and give examples of the following forces:
    • ion – ion
    • ion – dipole
    • ion – induced dipole
    • dipole – dipole
    • dipole – induced dipole
    • induced dipole – induced dipole
    • van der Waals
    • dispersion
    • hydrogen bonding
  • Define polarizability and its relationship with intermolecular forces.

Students will be able to....

  • Explain the difference between intermolecular and intramolecular forces
  • Explain the general mechanism for each of the following intermolecular forces"
  • Predict the polarity of molecules
  • Assess why H2O, HF and NH3 do not follow the expected trend as shown by the plot in Figure 11.6.
Learning Targets Ch. 11.3 Properties of Liquids

Students will know....

  • Properties of water:
    • surface tension
    • capillary action
    • cohesion, adhesion
    • viscosity

Students will be able to....

  • Use the concepts of intermolecular forces to explain surface tension, capillary action, cohesion, adhesion and viscosity.
  • Describe the structure of water and explain why ice is less dense than water.
  • Sketch density vs. temperature curve for water and describe how this plot has major significance for aquatic life.
Learning Targets Ch. 11.4 Crystal Structure

Students will know....

  • the difference between crystalline and amorphous solids; give examples of each.
  • Identify coordination numbers for atoms in simple cubic, face-centered cubic, and body-centered cubic structures.
  • List the number of atoms contained in a unit cell for simple cubic, face-centered cubic, and body-centered cubic structures.

Students will be able to....

  • Use geometric concepts to relate a, the edge length of a unit cell, to r, the radius of atoms, in simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic structures.
  • Calculate what fraction of a unit cell is occupied by atoms, and show that the face-centered cubic structure has the closest packing for simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic structures.
  • Perform calculations involving crystal structure, density, atomic radius and the number of atoms per unit cell.
Learning Targets Ch. 11.5 X-Ray Diffraction by Crystals

Students will know....

  • X-ray diffraction - how and why it is used

Students will be able to....

  • Describe how X-ray diffraction is used to determine geometric parameters of solids.
Learning Targets Ch. 11.6 Types of Crystals

Students will know....

  • Describe the general properties of ionic, covalent, molecular and metallic crystals.

Students will be able to....

  • Give examples of each.
Learning Targets Ch. 11.7 Amorphous Solids

Students will know....

  • Define amorphous solid, and list properties.

Students will be able to....

  • Explain how an amorphous solid is different from a crystalline solid.
Learning Targets Ch. 11.8 Phase Changes

Students will know....

  • Define the following:
    • evaporation
    • condensation
    • molar heat of vaporization
    • molar hear of fusion
    • boiling point
    • melting point
    • supercooling
    • sublimation
    • deposition
    • molar heat of sublimation
    • phase changes
    • critical temperature and pressure

Students will be able to....

  • Use Clausius–Clapeyron equation to solve for vapor pressure at a specific temperature given associated data.
  • Sketch a typical heating curve and identify various aspects of it.
Learning Targets Ch. 11.8 Phase Diagrams
  Use phase diagrams to identify what phase(s) is/are present given specific conditions
Daily Learning Activities
Winter Break
  • Intermolecular Forces Investigation - copy/paste this google doc into your own, and expand.

Links and Resources

Textbook, Chapter 10
van der Waals forces - from Wikipedia
How snowflakes form - Bytesizechem, from the ACS



L. C. Lee 1990-2012
Creative Commons License
This work by Luann Christensen Lee is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License.
Based on a work at www.chemistar.com.

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